Applications of nanodiamond

NDs have been used in energy storage devices because of their high surface area, good mechanical properties, high chemical stability, and relatively high conductivity. Appropriate doping or surface modification of NDs could alter their electronic structure, which could facilitate their application into supercapacitors and batteries.

NDs are attracting a great deal attention in polymer nanocomposites, which is mainly due to the large surface-to-volume ratio of the nanofillers since this induces a dramatic increase in the volume of the interphase, so their properties are influenced by the nanoparticle and are different from the bulk polymer. Particularly, main advantages of NDs for polymer composites stem from their unique properties such that the diamond structure provides superior Young's modulus, hardness, high thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity, low coefficient of friction, chemical stability, and biocompatibility.

The introduction of NDs into electroplating significantly improves their microhardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, throwing power, makes the visual appearance of goods more attractive and reduces porosity. The main reason for these changes are due to the reduction of the size of meal domains in the metal film. A number of ND-containing composite of electroplating based on chromium, nickel, tin, zinc, copper, gold, silver, aluminum, iron and various alloys are under development. 

NDs in abrasives can improve the characteristics of chemicomechanical polishing and the efficiency of the overall surface treatment. NDs introduced into the liquid (ND content of 0.1 wt% - 0.3 wt%) act as powerful structure-forming agent. Using low-filled aqueous, organic and aqueous-organic ND dispersions, one can obtain ideally smooth surfaces of materials processed, in which the microroughness is comparable in size with interatomic distances.

Diamonds are non-toxic and non-tumorigenic species, possess no mutagenic properties, and are insoluble in biological liquids. Even though the biological activity of ND has not been thoroughly studied as yet, NDs confer beneficial effects in biosciece because of their excellent physicochemical properties: an ND crystal has a chemically inert diamond core and a reactive surface comprised of functional groups that are safe for living organism and impart the surface with hydrophilic properties. ND is of great interest for biochemistry as a novel kind of sorbent suitable for separation and purification of proteins. NDs can be used in a highly sensitive test method for determination of the presence and type of antibodies and antigen markers of different nosology.